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Hallmarks of Aging

The roots of aging are multicausal, and marked by several features1:

  • Genomic instability caused by DNA damage
  • Attrition of the telomeres
  • Alterations to the epigenome that controls which genes are turned on and off
  • Loss of healthy protein maintenance, known as proteostasis
  • Deregulated nutrient sensing caused by metabolic changes
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction
  • Accumulation of senescent zombielike cells that inflame healthy cells
  • Exhaustion of stem cells
  • Altered intercellular communication and the production of inflammatory molecules

References

1.
PhD, D. A. S. & LaPlante, M. D. Lifespan: Why We Age and Why We Don’t Have To. (Atria Books, 2019).