Three Types of Negotiation Leverage

According to Chris Voss 1, there are three types of leverage:

  • The Three types of leverage
    • “Positive” leverage -> your ability to give them what they want

    • “Negative” leverage -> the ability to make the counterparty suffer. This gets attention because of loss aversion.

      • It can be very helpful to label your negative leverage without necessarily threatening it
    • Normative leverage -> rules and moral moral framework of the counterparty that advance your position


Voss, C. & Raz, T. Never Split the Difference: Negotiating As If Your Life Depended On It. (Harper Business, 2016).